英语英美文学常识

2018-11-27 文学常识

  篇一:英语专八英美文学常识汇总

  3专八人文知识:英国地理概况

  the english channel: the channel is a narrow sea passage which separates england and france and connects the atlantic ocean and north sea.

  英吉利海峡:英吉利海峡是一道狭长的海峡,分割英法两国,连接大西洋和北海。

  the dee estuary: a small sea ( in irish sea) where the dee river enters.

  迪河河口:是迪河流入的一个小海。

  "the act of union of 1801": in 1801 the english parliament passed an act by which scotland, wales and the kingdom of england were constitutionally joined as the kingdom of great britain.

  1801合并法:1801年英国议会通过法令,规定英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士根据法律合并成为大不列颠王国。

  gaelic: it is one of the celtic language, and is spoken in parts of the highlands.

  盖尔语:是盖尔特语言的一种,在高地地区仍有人说这种语言。

  the "backbone of england": it refers to the pennies, the board ridge of hills.

  英格兰脊梁:指的是山脉的背脊。

  lead ore: british lead ores have been worked since pre-roman times. it contains silver.

  铅矿:自前罗马时代开始,英国的铅矿就被开发了。内含银。

  china clay: the deposits of china clay in cornwall are of great economic value.

  瓷土:康沃尔的瓷土沉淀带来了巨大的经济价值。

  4专八人文知识复习:美国地理概况

  本文针对英语专业八级考试的人文知识部分,总结了美国国家的主要地理概况,希望对同学们有所帮助。 The Fall Line瀑布线:A point where water-falls or rapids suddenly drop from a higher level to the lower one.

  瀑布线指的是瀑布急速地从高处向低处流泻的点。

  The Appalachian Range阿巴拉契亚山脉:1200 miles long,consists of the Piedmont Plateau, Appalachian Plateaus and Appalachian Range.

  阿巴拉契亚山脉全场1200英里,由皮德蒙特高原、阿巴拉契亚高原及阿巴拉契亚山脉组成。

  The Cordillera Range科迪勒拉山脉:Composed of the Coast Range, the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains.

  科迪勒拉山脉由海岸山脉、卡斯卡德山以及洛基山组成。

  The Great Basin大盆地:The Part between the Colorado and Columbia Plateaus.

  指的是科罗拉多和哥伦比亚高地之间的部分。

  The Great Central Plain中部大平原:The land mass between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians.

  指的是洛基山和阿巴拉伊亚山之间的平原。

  The Great Plain大平原:The western part of the central plain.

  大平原:指的是中部平原以西的部分。

  The Mississippi River密西西比河:The longest, the most important river in the U.S.A. . It has a drainage area of 3225000 square kilometers.

  密西西比河是美国最长、最重要的河流。它的流域面积达3225000平方公里。

  The Five Great Lakes北美五大湖:Lake Michigan, Superior, Erie, Huron and Ontario.

  北美五太湖指的是密歇根湖、苏必利尔湖、伊利湖、休伦湖以及安大略湖。

  The Niagara Falls尼亚加拉瀑布:Famous falls in North America, 1240 meters wide, the drop averages 49 meters.

  尼亚加拉瀑布是北美最著名的瀑布,有1240米宽,平均落差为49米。

  Yellow stone National Park黄石国家公园:Located in the northern part of Wyoming. It is the oldest national park in the world and the largest wildlife preserve in the U.S.A. 黄石国家公园位于怀俄明州的北部地区。是世界上最古老的国家公园,是美国最大的野生保护区。

  Grand Canyon大峡谷:In northern Arizona, one of the great natural wonders of the world. It measures about 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide, and more than a mile deep. Its walls show layers that tell the story of the formation of the earth.

  大峡谷在亚利桑那州的北部,是世界上最伟大的自然奇迹之一。它约有277英里长,18英里宽,约1英里深。它的墙壁断层记录了地球形成的过程。

  Old Faithful老忠实喷泉:The most famous gayer in Yellowstone National Park, erupting more than l00 feet in the air about every 73 minutes.

  老忠实喷泉是黄石国家公园最著名的喷泉,每73分钟向空中喷水100英尺多高。

  Chinatown唐人街:An area in a city where many Chinese people live and where are Chinese shops, restaurants, clubs; two, important Chinatowns: New York City and San Francisco.

  唐人街是许多中国人生活、居住的地区,那里有许多中国店铺、饭店、夜总会。两条最重要的唐人街分别在纽约和旧金山。

  Indian Reservation印第安保留地:It refers to the barren desert regions where only Indians live exclusively.

  印第安保留地指的是专门给印第安人居住的贫瘠的沙漠地区。

  New England新英格兰:It consists of six states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. This region is featured with mountains, valleys, rivers.

  新英格兰由六个州组成:缅因州、新罕布什尔州、佛蒙特州、马萨诸塞州、罗德岛州以及康涅狄格。这个地区主要以多山、多山谷、河流为特征。

  The Mountain States山地诸州:Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico.

  山地诸州指的是蒙大拿州、怀俄明州、科罗拉多州以及新墨西哥州。

  The Pacific Coast States太平洋沿岸诸州:Washington, Oregon and California.

  太平洋沿岸诸州包括华盛顿州、俄勒冈州以及加利弗尼亚州。

  Mount McKinley 麦金利山:6187 meters high, on the middle of the Alaska, the highest peak on this continent.

  麦金利山高达6187米。在阿拉斯加的中部。是这片大陆上最高的山峰。

  Pearl Harbor 珍珠港:The base of the Pacific Fleet of the U.S.A. near the city of Honolulu in Hawaii.

  珍珠港是美国太平洋舰队的基地,在夏威夷的火奴鲁鲁市附近。

  5专八人文知识复习:加拿大地理概况

  Canada is the world's second largest country after Russia. 60% of the population in Canada inhabit in the area between Quebec city and the western end of Lake Ontario. 加拿大是世界上幅员第二大的国家,大约60%的人口集中在魁北克市与安大略省西端。

  Toronto多伦多:Toronto is Canada's largest city and the provincial Capital of Ontario.

  多伦多是安大略省的省会,加拿大经济中心,第一大城市。

  Ottawa渥太华:Ottawa is the capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest city. It is located in the Ottawa Valley in the eastern part of the province of Ontario.

  加拿大首都,第四大城市,地处安大略省东部的安大略谷。

  Vancouver温哥华:Vancouver is British Columbia’s largest city and the third largest city in Canada. It is an important ice-free harbor and the major Canadian outlet to the Pacific Ocean and the largest cargo port on the Pacific.

  不列颠哥伦比亚省的最大城市,也是加拿大第三大城市。它是加拿大一个非常重要的不冻港,而且是加拿大通往太平洋的主要通道,太平洋最大的货运港口。

  Quebec魁北克省:Quebec is the largest province in Canada geographically, and the second most populous, after Ontario. It differs from the other provinces of Canada because of its strong French culture. Montreal, the second largest city of Canada, is located in this province. The Quebec city is the center of the province.

  魁北克省是加拿大最大的省,人口仅次于安大略省。法国文化的强烈影响使它与其他省区不一样。加拿大第二大城市蒙特利尔位于该省。其中心是位于圣劳伦斯河上的魁北克城。 The Canadian Shield加拿大地盾:The Canadian Shield is a semicircle band of rocky highlands and plateaus around the Hudson Bay from the northern shores of Quebec to the Arctic shores of the Northwest Territories. The Shield covers almost half of the Canadian territory.

  这是围绕哈得孙海湾的一块半圆形多石高低和高原,从魁北克省的北部海岸一直延伸到西北自治领的北极沿岸。几乎加拿大的一半面积在加拿大地盾一带。

  Mount Logan 洛跟峰:Mount Logan is the highest peak in Canada and is located in the Yukon Territory of northwest Canada.

  加拿大最高峰,位于加拿大西北部的育空地区。

  The Mackenzie River 马更些河:The Mackenzie River is the longest river in Canada, flowing between the Canadian Shield and the Rocky Mountains.

  马更些河是加拿大最长的河流,流经加拿大地盾与西部落基山脉之间,全长1600公里。

  英国文学(English Literature)

  一、 Old and Medieval English Literature中古英语文学 (8世纪-14世纪)

  1) The Old English Period / The Anglo-Saxon Period古英语时期 (449-1066)

  a. pagan poetry(异教诗歌): Beowulf《贝奥武甫》- 最早的诗歌;长诗(3000行) heroism & fatalism & Christian qualities

  the folk legends of the primitive northern tribes; a heroic Scandinavian epic legend; 善恶有报

  b. religious poetry: Caedmon(凯德蒙 610-680): the first known religious poet; the father of English song

  Cynewulf(基涅武甫 9C): The Christ

  c. 8th C, Anglo-Saxon prose: Venerable Bede(673-735); Alfred the Great(848-901)

  2) The Medieval Period 中世纪 (1066-ca.1485 / 1500):

  a. Romance 中世纪传奇故事 (1200-1500): the Middle Ages; 英雄诗歌

  无名诗人 - Sir Gawain and the Green Knight《高文爵士与绿色骑士》: Celtic legend; verse-romance; 2530 lines

  ~ 14th C, Age of Chaucer:

  * Geoffrey Chaucer(乔叟 1340-1400): 文风:vivid and exact language, his poetry is full of vigor and swiftness

  the father of English poetry; the father of English fiction; 首创“双韵体”; 首位用伦敦方言写作英国作家

  The Canterbury Tales: pilgrims stories 受Boccaccio(薄伽丘) - Decameron《十日谈》启发

  The House of Fame; Troilus and Criseyde; The Romaunt of the Rose《玫瑰罗曼史》(译作)

  * William Langland(朗兰 1332-1400):The Vision of Piers Plowman《农夫皮尔斯之幻象》: 普通人眼中的社会抗议

  b. 15th C, English ballads: Thomas Malory (1395-1471) : Morte d’Arthur《亚瑟王之死》- 圆桌骑士

  二、The Renaissance Period英国文艺复兴 (1500-1660): humanism 十四行诗,文艺复兴,无韵诗,伊丽莎白戏剧

  1) 诗歌 Hey Howard(霍华德 1516-1547)

  a. Thomas Wyatt (怀亚特1503-1542): the first to introduce the sonnet into English literature

  b. Sir Philip Sidney(雪尼爵士 1554-1586):代表了当时的理想 - “the complete man”Defense of Poetry《为诗辩护》

  Astrophel and Stella; Arcadia《阿卡狄亚》: a prose romance filled with lyrics; a forerunner of the modern world c.Edmund Spenser(斯宾塞 1552-1599): the poets’ poet; non-dramatic poet of伊丽莎白时代 - long allegorical romance文风:a perfect melody, a rare sense of beauty and a splendid imagination. The Shepherd Calendar

  The Faerie Queen《仙后》:long poem for Queen Elizabeth; Allegory - nine-line verse stanza/ the Spenserian Stanza

  Spenserian Stanza(斯宾塞诗体): Nine lines, the first eight lines is in iambic(抑扬格) pentameter(五步诗),

  and the ninth line is an iambic hexameter(六步诗) line.

  2) Prose 散文

  a. Thomas More(莫尔 1478-1535): 欧洲早期空想社会主义创始人 Utopia《乌托邦》: More与海员的对话

  b. John Lyly (黎里 1553-160,剧作家&小说家):Eupheus

  Euphuism(夸饰文体): Abundant use of balanced sentences, alliterations(头韵) and other artificial prosodic(韵律) means. The use of odd similes(明喻) and comparisons

  c. Francis Bacon (培根 1561-1626):英国首位散文家,中世纪至现代欧洲时期; 近代唯物主义哲学奠基人和近代实验科学先驱 the trumpeter of a new age; Essays(论说文集):Of Studies, Of Love, Of Beauty: the first true English prose classic

  3) 戏剧

  a. Christopher Marlowe(马洛 1564-1593): University Wits 大学才子派 Edward II;The Jew of Malta《马耳他的犹太人》

  first made blank verse(无韵诗:不押韵的五步诗) the principle instrument of English drama

  The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus《浮士德博士的悲剧》:根据德国民间故事书写成; 完善了无韵体诗。

  Tamburlaine the Great《帖木儿大帝》:残酷而野心勃勃的帝王

  b. William Shakespeare(剧作家&诗人, 1564-1616): 154 sonnets(十四行诗) + 37 plays + long poems; 现实主义创始人 16 comedies : Merchant of Venice (Shylock; Antonio; Bassanio; Portia);The Taming of the Shrew《驯悍记》

  A Mid-Summer Night’s Dream; As You Like It《皆大欢喜》; The Twelfth Night; The Comedy of Errors;

  Much Ado About Nothing《无事生非》; The Winter’s Tale《冬天的故事》; All is Well that Ends Well《终成眷属》

  11 tragedies: Romeo and Juliet; Hamlet; Macbeth《麦克白》; The Tempest《暴风雨》

  Othello: a hero Othello vs. bad man Iago; Venice and Cyprus

  King Lear: British King; greatest achievement; most complex in plot and most painful

  10 historical plays: Hey IV; Hey V

  c. Ben Jonson(琼生 1562-1637 诗人&剧作家&批评家): Comedy of Humors; Volpone《狐狸》; The Alchemist《炼金术士》

  三、 17世纪文学

  1) Literature of the Revolution Period (Age of Milton)资产阶级革命时期: poetry (Metaphysical 玄学派+ Cavalier骑士派) a. John Donne(多恩 1572-1631):玄学派创始人;A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning《临别辞:莫悲伤》

  文风:obscene, vulgar and serious philosophical thinking – the conflict between body and soul

  The Holy Sonnets; The Flea; Go and Catch a Falling Star; The Songs and Sonnets(主题-爱)

  b. John Milton(弥尔顿 1608-1674):Renaissance and Reformation (宗教改革)

  Paradise Regained《复乐园》; Paradise Lost《失乐园》: the greatest English epic; Satan is the hero

  Samson Agonistes《力士参孙》:closet drama; for reading rather than performing;

  On His Blindness《目盲自咏》; Areopagitica《论出版自由》; Comus; L’allegro《快乐的人》; Lycidas

  c. John Bunyan(班扬 1628-1688): prose writing in the Puritan Age; 文风:simple and lively prose style

  The Pilgrim’s Progress《天路历程》: prose allegory depicting a human soul searching for salvation 宗教寓言

  “具有永恒意义的百科全书”,英国文学史上里程碑式著作。与但丁《神曲》、奥古斯丁《忏悔录》并列世界三大宗教题材文学杰作。

  2) Literature of the Restoration Period (Age of Dryden)王政复辟/德莱顿时期: tendancy to Realism and Formalism restoration literature: cliquish culture小集团文化; French classical taste

  a. John Dryden (德莱顿 1631-1700, 批评家&戏剧家):first poet laureate(桂冠诗人); the father of English Criticism establish the heroic couplet(英雄史诗式两行诗) as the fashion for satiric, didactic(说教) and descriptive(描写) poetry

  最先提出“玄学诗人”一词;他创造的“英语双韵体couplet”, 成为英国诗歌的主要形式之一。All for Love; Alexander’s Feast; An Essay of Dramatic Poesy《论戏剧诗歌》: the great playwrights of Greece and Rome, 英国文艺复兴&当代法国

  四、18世纪英国文学: Realism (关注社会现状,普通人) The Neoclassical Period (17世纪中期-18世纪)

  ~ Enlightenment (启蒙运动): 18th C, 法国-西欧, a progressive intellectual movement. 文艺复兴的衍伸;资本主义反对封建主义 Enlighten the world with modern philosophical and artistic ideas; rationality, equality & science ~ Neo-Classicism: 早期 (Addison, Steele and Pope); 中期 (Samuel Johnson) old classics

  Conform to rules and principles established by Roman and Greek Classical writers; use rimed couplet(押韵的两行诗) Order, logic, restrained emotion and accuracy, be judged in terms of the thematic concern

  a. Samuel Pepys(毕博思 1633-1703): The greatest diarist in 17th CThe Diary

  b. Alexander Pope(蒲柏 1688-1744) : 新古典主义代表; master in satire and heroic couplet; Age of Pope – 18世纪初期 文风:词句工整、精练、富有哲理;对Byron影响巨大 first introduced rationalism to England

  An Essay on Criticism(处女作); An Essay on Man; Odyssey; The Rape of the Lock《夺发记》; Dunciad《愚人记》 c. Richard Steele (斯梯尔 1672-1729) & Joseph Addison (艾迪生 1672-1719): literary periodicals

  The Tattler(闲谈者报): 1709, by Steele; Addison wrote essays; 抨击封建偏见,傲慢的富人,及大众对赌博和决斗的反感 The Spectator(旁观者报):共同创办;the Spectator Club --- 现代英语小说先锋

  贡献:资产阶级新社会道德;18世纪英国社会真实写照;英语散文正式成为一大文学流派

  d. Samuel Johnson (字典约翰 1709-1784) : literary dictator; “grand champion in literature of that age”

  The Dictionary of the English Language: 英语字典的基础;The Lives of English poets: 52 early English poets

  2) 十八世纪小说的崛起: 首批英国小说家 – the Sentimentalist & the Realist

  * 现实主义

  a. Daniel Defoe(笛福 1661-1731): 英国现实主义小说奠基人; Father of English and European NovelsMoll Flanders

  The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe:the first person singular

  Crusoe represented the English bourgeoisie at the early stage of its development.A Journal of the Plague Year b. Hey Fielding(菲尔丁 1707-1754, 小说家&戏剧家): 英国小说之父; 英国现代小说创始人;comic epic in prose创始人 文风:exact study and observation of real life Joseph Andrews; Amelia

  The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling《弃婴汤姆·琼斯的故事》: 18世纪英国群像;Mr. Allworthy“Prose Humor” c. Jonathan Swift(斯威夫特1667-1745, 政论家&讽刺小说家): 伟大文学创造者之一;master of English satirical prose

  文风:simple, clear and vigor; “Proper words in proper places, makes the true definitions of a style”

  Gulliver’s Travels《格列佛游记》: Liliput(小人国); Brogdingnagians(大人国); Laputa(勒普泰岛); Houyhnhnms(慧马国) The Battle of the Books; The Tale of a Tub; A Modest Proposal (bitter irony)

  d. Tobias George Smollett (1721-1771):冒险小说

  * Sentimentalism(感伤主义): It indulges in emotion and sentiment, which are used as a sort of relief for the grief felt

  towards the world’s wrongs and as a kind of mild protest against social injustice.

  a. Samuel Richardson(理查森 1689-1761): the founder of the English domestic novel 小说开始审视“发生于内心的东西” Pamela; Clarissa; The History of Sir Charles Grandison

  篇二:美国文学(第三部分)专八人文知识英美文学整理总结

  美国文学(第三部分)(专八英美文学整理)

  20世纪初至今现代主义时期American Modernism1. 二战前诗歌 艾兹拉·庞德美国现代诗歌创始人the father of modern American poetry, 意象派诗歌之父 Ezra Pound the father of Imagist Peotry 1885-1972 Cathay华夏(英译中国诗)In a station of the Metro在地铁站Pisam Cantos比萨诗章 The Cantos of Ezra Pound庞德诗章(109首及8首未完成稿)罗伯特·弗罗斯特 New Hampshire新罕布什尔 The Road Not taken没有选择的道路 Robert Frost A Boy’s Wish少年心愿 After Apple-picking摘苹果之后 1874-1963 North of Boston波士顿之北 Mending Wall修墙华莱士·史蒂文斯 spokesman for the rationalist humanist tradition

  Wallace Stevens Harmonium风琴 1879-1955The Man With the Blue Guitar弹蓝吉它的人 Collected Poems诗集 The Auroras of Autumn秋天的晨曦 Sunday Morning礼拜天早晨2. 二战前小说 弗朗西斯·司各特·菲茨杰拉德The Great Gatsby了不起的盖茨比

  F Scott Fitzgerald The Beautiful and the Damned美丽的和该死的 1896-1940 The Side of Paradise人间天堂(his first novel) Tender in the Night夜色温柔 (迷惘的一代) Tales of the Jazz爵士时代的故事 The Last Tycoon最后的巨头 Flappers and Philosophers姑娘们和哲学家们辛克莱·刘易斯 美国第一个获诺贝尔奖 Sinclair LewisBabbitt巴比特 1885-1951Main Street大街 Arrowsmith艾罗史密斯 Elmer Gantry艾尔默·甘特里 Dodsworth多兹沃斯欧内斯特·海明威 “迷惘的一代”的代表人物Lost generation1954诺贝尔奖 Ernest Hemingway Farewell to Arms永别了,武器 1899-1961 The Old Man and the Sea老人与海The Sun Also Rises太阳照样升起 For Whom the Bell Tolls丧钟为谁而鸣Death in the Afternoon午后之死 In Our Time在我们的年代里; The Torrents of Spring春潮;威廉·福克纳 1950诺贝尔奖 William FaulknerThe Sound and the Fury喧嚣与骚动(lost innocence, stream of consciousness) 1897-1962 Absalom,Absolam押沙龙,押沙龙(historical novel)As I lay dying当我弥留之际

  约翰·斯坦贝克 1962诺贝尔奖,美国经济大萧条时期作家

  John Steinbeck The Grapes of Wrath愤怒的葡萄 1902-1966Of Mice and Men鼠和人 The Pearl珍珠 Tortilla Flat煎饼房舍伍德·安德森 Winesburg,Ohio俄亥俄州的温斯堡 Sherwood AndersonThe Triumph of the Egg鸡蛋的胜利 1876-1941 Death in the Woods林中之死3. 二战前戏剧尤金·奥尼尔1936诺贝尔奖,标志美国民族戏剧的成熟,悲剧 Eugene OneilBeyond the Horizon天边外 1888-1953 The Long Days Journey Into Night长夜漫漫路迢迢4. 当代作家 威廉·卡罗斯·威廉斯William Carlos Williams 诗人1883-1963 Red Wheelbarrow红色手推车 杰罗姆·大卫·塞林格 Jerome David Salinger 1919-The Catcher in the Rye麦田守望者(长篇小说) 杰克·克鲁亚克Jack Kerouac 小说家 1922-1969 On the Road在路上

  阿瑟·米勒Arthur Miller 剧作家 1915-The Death of a Salesman推销员之死 拉尔夫·埃里森 Ralph Ellison 小说家 1914-1994 Invisible Man看不见的人(长篇小说)

  篇三:英语专八人文知识考试总结

  英语专八人文知识考试总结

  1 专八考试人文知识考试内容总结

  其中英美文学包括英国文学和美国文学。英国文学主要分为六个时期:

  1. Old and Medieval English Literature(中古英国文学)。

  2. The Renaissance Period(文艺复兴时期)。

  3. The Neoclassical Period(新古典主义时期)。

  4. The Romantic Period(维多利亚时期)。

  5. The Victorian Period(维多利亚时期)。

  6. The Modern Period(现代时期)。

  美国文学主要分为四个时期:

  (独立革命前后的文学)。

  。

  。

  。

  英语专业的学生都会开设英美概况这门课程,但是专八考试的中需要考生了解的是英语国家概况,不光包括英国和美国,还有其他一些说英语的地区,包括爱尔兰概况,加拿大概况,澳大利亚概况和新西兰概况。

  3专八人文知识:英国地理概况

  the english channel: the channel is a narrow sea passage which separates england and france

  and connects the atlantic ocean and north sea.

  英吉利海峡:英吉利海峡是一道狭长的海峡,分割英法两国,连接大西洋和北海。

  the dee estuary: a small sea ( in irish sea) where the dee river enters.

  迪河河口:是迪河流入的一个小海。

  "the act of union of 1801": in 1801 the english parliament passed an act by which scotland, wales and the kingdom of england were constitutionally joined as the kingdom of great britain.

  1801合并法:1801年英国议会通过法令,规定英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士根据宪法合并成为大不列颠王国。

  英格兰脊梁:指的是山脉的背脊。

  4

  总结了美国国家的主要地理概况,希望对同学们有所帮助。 The Fall Line瀑布线:A point where water-falls or rapids suddenly drop from a higher level to the lower one.

  瀑布线指的是瀑布急速地从高处向低处流泻的点。

  The Appalachian Range阿巴拉契亚山脉:1200 miles long,consists of the Piedmont Plateau, Appalachian Plateaus and Appalachian Range.

  阿巴拉契亚山脉全场1200英里,由皮德蒙特高原、阿巴拉契亚高原及阿巴拉契亚山脉组成。

  The Cordillera Range科迪勒拉山脉:Composed of the Coast Range, the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains.

  科迪勒拉山脉由海岸山脉、卡斯卡德山以及洛基山组成。

  The Great Basin大盆地:The Part between the Colorado and Columbia Plateaus.

  指的是科罗拉多和哥伦比亚高地之间的部分。

  The Great Central Plain中部大平原:The land mass between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians.

  指的是洛基山和阿巴拉伊亚山之间的平原。

  The Great Plain大平原:The western part of the central plain.

  大平原:指的是中部平原以西的部分。

  The Mississippi River密西西比河:drainage area of 3225000 square kilometers.

  密西西比河是美国最长、最重要的河流。它的流域面积达

  The Five Great Lakes北美五大湖:

  The Niagara Falls尼亚加拉瀑布:averages 49 meters.

  尼亚加拉瀑布是北美最著名的瀑布,有49米。

  Yellow stone National Park是美国最大的野生保护区。

  Grand CanyonIn one of the great natural wonders of the world. It 277英里长,18英里宽,约

  Old FaithfulThe most famous gayer in Yellowstone National Park, erupting more than l00 feet in the air about every 73 minutes.

  老忠实喷泉是黄石国家公园最著名的喷泉,每73分钟向空中喷水100英尺多高。

  Chinatown唐人街:An area in a city where many Chinese people live and where are Chinese shops, restaurants, clubs; two, important Chinatowns: New York City and San Francisco.

  唐人街是许多中国人生活、居住的地区,那里有许多中国店铺、饭店、夜总会。两条最重要的唐人街分别在纽约和旧金山。

  Indian Reservation印第安保留地:It refers to the barren desert regions where only Indians live

  exclusively.

  印第安保留地指的`是专门给印第安人居住的贫瘠的沙漠地区。

  New England新英格兰:It consists of six states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. This region is featured with mountains, valleys, rivers.

  新英格兰由六个州组成:缅因州、新罕布什尔州、佛蒙特州、马萨诸塞州、罗德岛州以及康涅狄格。这个地区主要以多山、多山谷、河流为特征。

  The Mountain States山地诸州:Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico.

  山地诸州指的是蒙大拿州、怀俄明州、科罗拉多州以及新墨西哥州。

  The Pacific Coast States太平洋沿岸诸州:

  太平洋沿岸诸州包括华盛顿州、俄勒冈州以及加利弗尼亚州。

  Mount McKinley 麦金利山:this continent.

  麦金利山高达6187

  Pearl Harbor 珍珠港:Hawaii.

  5

  60%的人口集中在魁北克市与安大略省西端。

  Ottawathe Ottawa Valley in the eastern part of the province of Ontario.

  加拿大首都,第四大城市,地处安大略省东部的安大略谷。

  Vancouver温哥华:Vancouver is British Columbia’s largest city and the third largest city in Canada. It is an important ice-free harbor and the major Canadian outlet to the Pacific Ocean and the largest cargo port on the Pacific.

  不列颠哥伦比亚省的最大城市,也是加拿大第三大城市。它是加拿大一个非常重要的不冻港,而且是加拿大通往太平洋的主要通道,太平洋最大的货运港口。

  Quebec魁北克省:Quebec is the largest province in Canada geographically, and the second most

  populous, after Ontario. It differs from the other provinces of Canada because of its strong French culture. Montreal, the second largest city of Canada, is located in this province. The Quebec city is the center of the province.

  魁北克省是加拿大最大的省,人口仅次于安大略省。法国文化的强烈影响使它与其他省区不一样。加拿大第二大城市蒙特利尔位于该省。其中心是位于圣劳伦斯河上的魁北克城。

  The Canadian Shield加拿大地盾:The Canadian Shield is a semicircle band of rocky highlands and plateaus around the Hudson Bay from the northern shores of Quebec to the Arctic shores of the Northwest Territories. The Shield covers almost half of the Canadian territory.

  这是围绕哈得孙海湾的一块半圆形多石高低和高原,从魁北克省的北部海岸一直延伸到西北自治领的北极沿岸。几乎加拿大的一半面积在加拿大地盾一带。

  Mount Logan 洛跟峰:Territory of northwest Canada.

  加拿大最高峰,位于加拿大西北部的育空地区。

  The Mackenzie River 马更些河:1600公里。

  7人文知识:

  新教综述 Protestantism

  16世纪宗教改革运动中脱离亦译为

  15思想文化上,经院主义神学日渐衰落,文艺复兴产生巨大影响,这一切都为宗教改革创新教所代表的抗议原则和精神可追溯到1416世纪20年代,马丁·路德在德国发起的宗教改革运动席卷全德;在瑞士,加尔文和茨温利的改革活动进一步扩大和加深了新教的影响;英王亨利八世出于政治原因推行自上而下的宗教改革,在克兰麦的协助下,组成具有独特形式的新教教会,以摆脱教皇的管辖。到16世纪中叶,新教的三个主要教派,即马丁·路德创立的路德宗、加尔文创立的归正宗和作为英格兰国教的安立甘宗,都已在欧洲出现。16世纪末到17世纪初,新教的三个主要宗派在教会组织和崇拜仪式上已基本定型;对教义的表述和阐述,经过长期的争论,也逐渐形成体系。在此之后,随着资本主义的发展,新教内部又出现了许多派别,教义也有了各种发展和变化。17世纪,英格兰的清教徒运动要求以加尔文主义改革保守的安立甘国教会,结果产生了一些脱离国教的新宗派,如长老会、公理会等。清教徒运动后来由移民传到美洲,使新教在北美发展成为影响最广的教派。同一时期,在德国也出现了以斯彭内尔为代表的虔敬运动,与英国清教徒运动相呼应。

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